Greek mythology

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In Greek mythology Abaris was a priest to the god Apollo. Apollo gave him a golden arrow which rendered him invisible and also cured diseases and gave oracles. Abaris gave the arrow to Pythagoras.

Abas was the son of Celeus and Metaneira. He mocked Demeter and was turned into a lizard. By some accounts he was the 12th king of Argolis who owned a magic shield.

Abdera was an ancient Greek city supposedly founded by Hercules in honour of his friend Abderus.

Abderus was a friend of Hercules. Hercules left him to look after the mare of Diomedes, which ate him.

Absyrtus (Apsyrtus) was a son of Aeetes, King of Colchis and brother of Medea. When Medea fled with Jason she took Absyrtus with her and when her father nearly overtook them she murdered Absyrtus and cut his body into pieces and threw it around the road so that her father would be delayed picking up the pieces of his son.

Acacetus is a name sometimes given to Hermes because of his eloquence.

Acamas was a son of Theseus and Phaedra. He went to Troy with Diomedes to demand the return of Helen.

Acastus was a son of Pelias. He was one of the argonauts.

In Greek mythology, Acestes was a Sicilian bowman who in a trial of skill discharge an arrow with such force that it ignited.

In Greek mythology, Achaeus was a son of Xuthus and Creusa. He returned to Thessaly and recovered the dominions of which his father had been deprived.

In Greek mythology Achates was a companion of Aeneas in his wanderings subsequent to his flight from Troy. He typified a faithful friend and companion.

see "Sirens"

In Greek mythology, Achelous was a river god who changed into a snake and a bull while fighting Hercules, but was defeated when Hercules broke off one of his horns.

Achemon and his brother Basalas were two Cercopes who were for ever arguing. One day they insulted Hercules, who tied them by their feet to his club and marched off with them like a brace of hares.

Acheron was one of the rivers of Hades.

In Greek mythology, Acherusia was a cave on the borders of Pontus which led to the infernal regions. It was through this cave that Hercules dragged Cerberus to earth.

In Greek mythology, Achilles was the son of Peleus, king of the Myrmidons in Thessaly, and of the sea nymph Thetis, who rendered him invulnerable, except for the heel by which she held him, by dipping him in the river Styx. Achilles killed Hector at the climax of the Iliad, and according to subsequent Greek legends was himself killed by Paris, who shot a poisoned arrow into Achilles' heel.

Achmon is an alternative spelling for Achemon.

In Greek mythology, Acis was a son of Faunus and a river nymph. He loved the sea-nymph Galatea and was killed by his jealous rival Polyphemus.

In Greek mythology, Acontius was a beautiful youth of Ceos. To win the love of Cydippe, daughter of a noble Athenian, he threw before her, in the precinct of the temple of Artemis, an apple on which he had written the vow: 'I swear by the sanctuary of Artemis to marry Acontius.' Cydippe read the words aloud and threw the apple away but the goddess had heard her, and when Cydippe was about to marry another she fell so ill that her father married her to Acontius by order of the Delphic oracle.

In Greek mythology, Acrisius was a son of Abas and the twin brother of Proteus with whom he quarreled even in the womb. He was the father of Danae. When Abas died, Acrisius expelled Proteus from his inheritance, but Proteus returned supported by Iobates and Acrisius was compelled to give him Tiryns while he kept Argos.

In Greek mythology, Actaeon was a great hunter who was turned into a stag by Artemis for looking on her while she was bathing. He was subsequently torn to pieces by his own dogs.

In the mythology of the Solomon Islands, Adaro is a sea-spirit.

The addanc was a dwarf or marine monster which lived near lake llyon. He was killed in some accounts by Peredu who obtained a magic stone which made him invisible.

Adrastea was an alternative name for Nemesis.

Adrastus was the son of Talaus and the king of Argos. He attempted to restore Polynices to his throne at Thebes, he failed but led a second assault leading the Epigoni. He died of grief when he heard that his son had been killed in the Epigoni assault.

Aello was one of the harpies.

Aeneas was a Trojan hero. He was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite. He led the survivors of the Trojan war to Italy.

Aeolus was the son of Hippotes. He lived on a rocky island where the winds were trapped in caves. He let the winds out as commanded by the gods.

Aesculapius was the son of Apollo and Coronis. His mother died at his birth, struck by an arrow of Artemis. His father saved him and took him to the physician Chiron who taught Aesculapius about healing, he was the Roman god of medicine, his worship introduced at Rome about 291 BC.

In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was a Greek hero of the Trojan wars, son of Atreus, king of Mycenae, and brother of Menelaus. He married Clytemnestra, and their children included Electra, Iphigenia, and Orestes. He sacrificed Iphigenia in order to secure favorable winds for the Greek expedition against Troy and after a ten years' siege sacked the city, receiving Priam's daughter Cassandra as a prize. On his return home, he and Cassandra were murdered by Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus. His children Orestes and Electra later killed the guilty couple.

In Greek mythology, Ajax was son of Telamon, king of Salamis, he was second only to Achilles among the Greek heroes in the Trojan War. According to subsequent Greek legends, Ajax went mad with jealousy when Agamemnon awarded the armor of the dead Achilles to Odysseus. He later committed suicide in shame.

In Greek mythology, Alastor is a name applied to any avenging demon, but principally to Zeus as the vindicator.

Alcaeus was a son of Perseus and Andromeda.

Alcestis was the wife of Admetus in Greek mythology. Her husband was ill, and according to an oracle would not recover unless someone vowed to die in his place. Alcestis made the vow and her husband recovered. After she died Hercules brought her back from the infernal regions.

Alcides is an alternative name for Hercules.

In Greek mythology, Alcmene is the virgin goddess of midwinter, midwinter's moon, the new year, stateliness, beauty and wisdom. Alcmene was the wife of Amphitryon. Zeus visited Alcmene in the form of her husband, and the child of their union was the Greek hero Heracles.

In Greek mythology, Alcyone is the goddess of the sea, the moon, calm and tranquility; She who brings life to death and death to life.

In Greek mythology, Alphito was a white goddess of barley flour, destiny and the moon. The hag of the mill and the lady of the nine heights.

Amaethon was the celtic god of husbandry.

in Greek mythology, the Amazons were a group of female warriors living near the Black Sea, who cut off their right breasts to use the bow more easily. Their queen, Penthesilea, was killed by Achilles at the siege of Troy. The Amazons attacked Theseus and besieged him at Athens, but were defeated, and Theseus took the Amazon Hippolyta captive; she later gave birth to Hippolytus. For more info on Amazons you can click the link.

In Greek mythology, ambrosia was the food of the gods which was supposed to confer eternal life upon all who ate it.

Amor was the Roman god of love.

In Greek mythology, Amphictyonis was the goddess of wine and friendship between nations.

In Greek mythology, Amphion was a son of Zeus and Antiope. He was the husband of Niobe. Amphion had great skill in music which he was taught by Hermes. He helped build the walls of Thebes, the stones moving themselves into position at the sound of his lyre.

Amphitrite was the Greek goddess of the sea and wife of Poseidon.

In Greek mythology, Amphitryon was King of Thebes, son of Alcaeus and husband of Alcmena.

Amymone was a daughter of Danaus. She and her sisters were sent to search for water when Poseidon caused a drought in the district of Argos. Whilst searching she threw a spear at a dear, missed it and hit a satyr which pursued her. She called to Poseidon for help. He came, drove off the satyr and produced a perennial spring for her at Lerna, where he met her.

Anadyomene is a name of Aphrodite when she was represented as rising from the sea.

In Roman mythology, Androcles was a Roman slave who fled from a cruel master into the African desert, where he encountered a crippled lion and took a thorn from its paw. The lion later recognized the recaptured slave in the arena and spared his life. The emperor Tiberius was said to have freed them both.

In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector.

Andromeda was a daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopea. Perseus found her bound to a rock as a sacrifice to a sea monster. Perseus rescued her after killing the sea monster so that she might become his wife.

In Roman mythology, Annona was the Goddess of the circling year and its harvest produce; Matron of commerce and the market place.

Antaeus was the giant son of Poseidon and Ge. He was invincible so long as he remained in contact with the earth. Hercules killed him by picking him up so that his feet were off the ground and then stifling him.

In Greek mythology, Anteros was the god of mutual love. He was said to punish those who did not return the love of others.

In Crete, Antheia was the goddess of vegetation, lowlands, marshlands, gardens, blossoms, the budding earth and human love.

Anthesteria was a Greek festival held each year in honour of the gods, particularly Bacchus and to celebrate the beginning of spring.

In Greek mythology Antigone was a daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. She was celebrated for her devotion to her father and her brother Polynices.

In Greek mythology, Antilochus was a son of Nestor. He was a hero of the Trojan war and was renowned for his speed of foot. He was killed by Memnon.

In Greek mythology, Antiope was a daughter of Nycteus, King of Thebes. Zeus was attracted by her beauty and came to her in the guise of a Satyr. Antiope conceived twins by Zeus, and scared of her father's wrath fled to Sicyon where she married King Epopeus. Antiope was the goddess of the new moon, the gad-flydance and fecundity; Mother of the morning and evening star.

Aphrodisia was the festival in celebration of Aphrodite celebrated throughout Turkey, Greece and Cyprus.

Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of love. The Romans called her Venus. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was the goddess of love (equivalent to the Roman Venus, Phoenician Astarte and the Babylonian Ishtar). She is said to be either a daughter of Zeus or to have sprung from the foam of the sea. She was the unfaithful wife of Hephaestus, the god of fire, and the mother of Eros. Aphrodite surpassed all the other goddesses in beauty, and hence received the prize of beauty from Paris. She likewise had the power of granting beauty and invincible charm to others. In the vegetable kingdom the myrtle, rose, apple, and poppy, among others, were sacred to Aphrodite, as, in the animal world, were the sparrow, dove, swan, and swallow.

See detailed information on Apollo by clicking the link.

In Greek mythology, Arachne was a Lydian woman who was so skillful a weaver that she challenged the goddess Athena to a contest. Athena tore Arachne's beautiful tapestries to pieces and Arachne hanged herself. She was transformed into a spider, and her weaving became a cobweb. She was therefore related to the textile industries. The matron of spinning, weaving and dyeing and the weaver of destiny.

Arcadia was a green mountainous isolated region in the centre of Peloponnese inhabited by shepherds and peasants.

Ares was the Greek god of storms and tempests. He was a son of Zeus and Hera. He became symbolic with storms and turmoil in human relationships and hence to being the god of war. The Romans called him Mars.

In Greek mythology, Arethusa was a daughter of Nereus and Doris. She was a nympth changed by Artemis into a fountain to enable her to escape the pursuit of Alpheus.

In Greek mythology the Argonauts were heroes who made a hazardous voyage to Colchis with Jason in the ship the Argo to get the golden fleece.

In Greek mythology the Argus was a beast and son of Arestor with a hundred eyes of which he could only close two at a time. He was placed by Juno to guard Io, whom Jupiter had changed into a heifer. But Mercury, who was sent to carry her off, managed to surprise and kill Argus whereupon Juno transfered his eyes to the tail of a peacock, her favourite bird.

In Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of King Minos. She helped Theseus out of the labyrinth with a thread. She was abandoned by Theseus on the Isle of Naxos where she subsequently met and married Bacchus.

In Greek mythology the Arimaspians were a one-eyed people who conducted a perpetual war against the griffins in an attempt to steal the griffin's gold.

In Greek mythology Aristaeus was the son of Apollo and Cyrene. He introduced bee-keeping.

See detailed information on Artemis by clicking the link.

The Aruspices (Haruspices) were a class of priests in ancient Rome. Their job was to foretell the future from the entrails of sacrificial victims.

Ascanius was a son of Aeneas and Creusa. He escaped from Troy with his father.

Asclepius was a Greek god of healing. He was the son of Apollo and Coronis. He was taught the art of healing by Cheiron. Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt as a punishment for bringing a dead man back to life.

In Greek mythology Astraea was the daughter of Zeus and Themis, the goddess of justice.

In Greek mythology Atalanta was a famous huntress of Arcadia. She was to be married only to someone who could outrun her in a race, the consequence of failure being death.

Ate was the goddess of infatuation, mischief and guilt. She would mislead men into actions which would be the ruin of them.

Athena (Athene) was the Greek goddess of intellect. She was the daughter of Zeus and Metis. See detailed information on Athena by clicking the link.

see "Athena"

Atlantiades was another name for Hermes.

Atlantides was name given to the Pleiades who were fabled to be the seven daughters of Atlas.

In Greek mythology, Atlantis was an island continent, said to have sunk following an earthquake. The Greek philosopher Plato created an imaginary early history for it and described it as a utopia.

Atlas was a giant who had to support the heavens upon his shoulders.

In Greek mythology Atreus was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia. He was King of Mycenae. To seek revenge on his brother Thyestes for seducing his wife, Atreus gave a banquet at which Thyestes dined on the flesh of his own sons.

In classical mythology, Attis was a Phrygian god whose death and resurrection symbolized the end of winter and the arrival of spring. He was loved by the goddess Cybele, who drove him mad as a punishment for his infidelity, he castrated himself and bled to death.

Augean stables
in Greek mythology, the Augean stables were the stables of Augeas, king of Elis in southern Greece. One of the labors of Hercules was to clean out the stables, which contained 3,000 cattle and had never been cleaned before. He was given only one day to do the task so he diverted the river Alpheus through their yard.

Aurora was goddess of the dawn. She was the daughter of Hyperion and Theia, and sister of Helios and Selene.

In Greek mythology, Autolycus was an accomplished thief and trickster. He was a son of the god Hermes, who gave him the power of invisibility.

Bacchanalia were feasts held in honor of Bacchus and characterized by licentiousness and revelry.

Bacchus was another name for Dionysus.

see "Achemon"

In Greek mythology, Bateia was a daughter of Teucer. She was married to Dardanus by whom she had two sons, Ilus and Erichthonius.

In Greek mythology, Bellerophon was a victim of slander who was sent against the monstrous chimera, which he killed with the help of his winged horse Pegasus. After further trials, he ended his life as a beggar. His story was dramatized by Euripides.

Bellona was the Roman goddess of war.

Beltaine is the name of the feast of the spring equinox.

In Greek mythology, Bia was a son of Styx and the Titan Pallas. Bia was the personification of might and force.

Boan was another name for Dana. In this version of events, Boan visited a sacred well which, to punish her for breaking the law, rose up and pursued her to the sea and thus became the river Boyne where lived the salmon of knowledge which fed on nuts dropped from the nine hazeltrees at the water's edge.

In Greek mythology, Boreas was the north wind god. He was the son of Astraeus and Aurora.

In Greek mythology, Briareus or Aegaeon was a son of Uranus and Gaea. He was a giant with a hundred hands and fifty heads who helped Zeus to conquer the Titans, and guarded them when they were imprisoned in Tartarus.

In Cretan mythology, Britomartis was a daughter of Zeus and Carme. Like Artemis, she was a virgin huntress. Minos loved and persued her, and to escape from him she threw herself into the sea but was saved by Artemis who made her a goddess.

Bromius was another name for Dionysus.

In Greek mythology, the bucentaur was a mythical creature, half man and half ox

Buryale was one of the Gorgons.

In Greek mythology, Busiris was a king of Egypt and the reputed founder of the city of Thebes. He was killed by Hercules.

In Greek mythology, Cadmus was the son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and the brother of Europa. He settled in Thrace and then in Boeotia where he founded the ancient city of Cadmeia. He gave the Greeks an alphabet.

Caduceus is the winged and serpent twisted staff or wand of Hermes.

Calliope was the muse of eloquence and heroic poems. She was the chief of the muses, and was said to have been the mother of Orpheus by Apollo.

Callisto was a daughter of Lycaon. She was one of Artemis' huntresses. She bore Arcas to Zeus. To conceal their affair, Zeus turned her into a bear.

In Greek mythology, Calypso was a sea nymph who inhabited the island of Ogygia. She waylaid the homeward-bound Odysseus and promissed him immortality if he would marry her. After seven years she was ordered by the gods to let him depart.

In Greek mythology, Cassandra was the daughter of Priam, King of Troy. Her prophecies were never believed, because she had rejected the love of the god Apollo. She was murdered with Agamemnon by his wife Clytemnestra, having been awarded as a prize to the Greek hero on his sacking of Troy.

Castalia is a spring on Mount Parnassus, near Delphi, frequented by Apollo and the Muses and thus a fount of poetical inspiration.

Castor was the twin brother of polydeuces. He was a son of Zeus and Leda. He, like his brother was born from an egg after Zeus visited Leda disguised as a swan.

Celaeno was one of the harpies.

In Greek mythology, Celeus was King of Eleusis and the husband of Metaneira.

A centaur was a beast half horse, and with the head, torso and arms of a man.

Cepheus was the king of Aethiopia. He displeased Poseidon by having a beautiful daughter, Andromeda. Poseidon then sent floods and a sea monster to terrorise the area until cepheus gave his daughter as a sacrifice to the sea monster.

Cerberus was a huge and savage dog with three heads which guarded the entrance to Hades. He was the offspring of Echidne and Typhon.

Cercyon was a son of Hephaestus. He was king near Eleusis. He challenged all travellers and wrestled them to death until he challenged and was killed by Theseus.

Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture, equivalent to the Greek Demeter.

In Greek mythology, the cestus was a girdle worn by Aphrodite and which was endowered with the power of exciting love towards the wearer.

The Chalybes were mythical inhabitants of north Asia Minor who invented iron working.

In Greek mythology, Chaos was the infinite space before Ge (the earth) was created.

The Charites were the Greek goddesses of gracefulness and the charms of beauty.

Charon was the ferryman who transported the dead across the river Styx to Hades.

In Greek mythology, the charybdis was a whirlpool formed by a monster of the same name on one side of the narrow straits of Messina, Sicily, opposite the monster Scylla.

Cheiron was a centaur. He was a son of Cronus and Philyra. He learnt hunting and medicine from Apollo and Artemis.

The chimaera was a monster composed of the head of a lion, the body of a goat and a serpant for a tail. Bellerophon was sent to slay it.

In Greek mythology, Chryse was a warlike goddess of the metal gold, in its refinement and all that is regarded as having great value.

In Greek mythology, Circe was an enchantress living on the island of Aeaea. In Homer's Odyssey, she turned the followers of Odysseus into pigs. Odysseus, bearing the herb moly provided by Hermes to protect him from the same fate, forced her to release his men.

Clio was the muse of history.

In Greek mythology, Clytemnestra was the wife of Agamemnon. With the help of her lover Aegisthus, she murdered her husband and his paramour Cassandra on his return from the Trojan War, and was in turn killed by her son Orestes.

In later Greek mythology, Comus was a god of revelry, banquets and nocturnal entertainments. He was generally depicted as a drunken youth. The depiction by Milton of Comus as a son of Bacchus and Circe was an idea thought of by Milton, and not the Greeks or Romans.

Corbenic was the castle in the Arthurian legend in which the Holy Grail was kept.

In Greek mythology, the cornucopia was one of the horns of the goat Amaltheia, which was caused by Zeus to refill itself indefinitely with food and drink.

Cratos was a son of Uranus and Gaea. He was very strong.

In Greek mythology, Creusa was the daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus. She was also loved by Apollo.

Cronus was the son of Uranus. He succeeded to the throne of the gods when Uranus was deposed. He married Rhea. He appears in Greek mythology.

Cupid was another name for Amor.

Cupido is an alternative spelling for Cupid.

In Greek mythology the Curetes were attendants of Rhea. They were supposed to have saved the infant Zeus from his father Cronus and then to have become a sort of bodyguard of the god. There were curetes also in The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, nearby Izmir.

Cybele was the Great Mother Goddess of the Phrygians in Anatolia and later the Greeks and Romans.

In Greek mythology, the Cyclops were one of a race of Sicilian giants, who had one eye in the middle of the forehead and lived as shepherds. Odysseus blinded the Cyclops Polyphemus in Homer's Odyssey.

In Greek mythology, Daedalus was an Athenian artisan whose skill rivaled that of Hephaestus. He was ordered by King Minos to construct a vast underground palace linked by a labyrinth of rooms into which Minos imprisoned his wife Pasiphae and her monstrous child the Minotaur. Daedalus fled from Crete because he knew the secret of the labyrinth and didn't trust Minos not to kill him. He fled with his son Icarus using wings made by them from feathers fastened with wax.

In Greek and Roman mythology, the daemons (or genii) were an order of invisible beings. The Greeks believed them to be inferior deities and that Zeus assigned one daemon to each man and woman at his birth, to attend, protect and guide him or her and at his or her death dying with him or her. They were nameless, and like the multitude of mankind, innumerable. Some of them acted as personal attendants to deities of a higher order, and in that case were represented under particular forms, and enjoyed distinctive names, while others were believed to watch over particular districts, towns or nations. The Romans believed them to be intermediate beings linking mankind with the gods.

The Danaans were one of the three Nemedian families who survived the Fomorian victory. The brought the stone of destiny from Falias.

In Greek mythology, Danae was daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos. He shut her up in a bronze tower because of a prophecy that her son would kill his grandfather. Zeus became enamored of her and descended in a shower of gold; she gave birth to Perseus.

Daphne was a daughter of Peneus. She was pursued by Apollo and asked to be turned into a laurel tree to escape him, which she was.

Daphnis was a son of Hermes and a nymph. He was raised by Sicilian shepherds when his mother abandoned him.

In Greek mythology, Dardanus was a son of Zeus and Electra. He was originally a king in Arcadia, he migrated to Samothrace and from there to Asia where Teucer gave him the site of his town, Dardania. He married Bateia.

Deianeira was the daughter of Oeonus and the wife of Hercules.

Deidamia fell in love with Achilles and bore him Neoptolemus.

Demeter was a Greek goddess of the earth. She is also called Ceres. She was the nourishing mother, bringing forth fruits. She was a daughter of Cronus and Rhea. For detailed information on Demeter you can click the link.

A demigod was a Greek hero. They were men who possessed god-like strength and courage and who had performed great tasks in the past.

In Greek mythology, Deucalion was the son of Prometheus. Warned by his father of a coming flood, Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha built an ark. After the waters had subsided, they were instructed by a god to throw stones over their shoulders which then became men and women.

Dia is an alternative name for Hebe.

Diana was the Roman name for the Greek goddess Artemis.

Dike was the attendant of justice to Nemesis.

Dionysus was a Greek god of happiness. He was also called Bacchus and Iacchus.

see "Erinys"

In Roman mythology, Dis was the god of the underworld, also known as Orcus.

Discordia was the Roman goddess of strife.

The dryades were nymphs of the woods and trees.

Echo was a mountain nymph and a servant of Hecate.

In Roman mythology, Egeria was a goddess of healing springs, wisdom, human laws and death. She was the Oak-Queen and granter of easy deliveries.

Eirene was the goddess of peace.

In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, and sister of Orestes and Iphigenia. Her hatred of her mother for murdering her father and her desire for revenge, fulfilled by the return of her brother Orestes, made her the subject of tragedies by the Greek dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

Electryon was a son of Perseus and Andromeda.

The Elementals are creatures or spirits of the elements. They are the forces of nature.

In Greek mythology, Elysium was originally another name for the Islands of the Blessed, to which favored heroes were sent by the gods to enjoy a life after death. It was later a region in Hades.

In Greek mythology, Endymion was a beautiful young man loved by Selene, the Moon goddess. He was granted eternal sleep in order to remain forever young.

Enyo was the Greek goddess of war.

Eos was the goddess of dawn. She was the daughter of Hyperion and Thia, and sister of Helios and Selene.

In Greek mythology, Epaphus was a son of Zeus and Io who was born on the River Nile. He became King of Egypt and married Memphis, or by some accounts Cassiopeia. he had a daughter, Libya, who gave her name to the African country of Libya.

The Epigoni were the descendants of the seven against Thebes who attacked the city ten years after their fathers had done so. They were organised by Adrastus.

Epimetheus was the brother of Prometheus.

Erato was the muse of love and marriage songs.

Erebus was the Greek god of darkness.

In Greek mythology, Erechtheus (Erichthonius) was an Attic hero, said to have been the son of Hephaestus and Atthis. He was brought up by Athena.

see "Erechtheus"

Eridanus was a Greek river god known as the king of rivers. He was a son of Oceanus and Tethys.

In Greek mythology, Erigone was the goddess of death, trees and fertility and associated with wine and a pastoral economy.

The Erinys or Furiae also called Dirae, Eumenides, or Semnae - that is, the "revered" goddesses - were, in Greek mythology, daughters of Night, or, according to another myth, of the Earth and Darkness, while a third account calls them offspring of Cronus and Eurynome. They were attendants of Hades and Persephone, and lived at the entrance to the lower world. Their first duty was to see to the punishment of those of the departed who, having been guilty of some crime on earth, had come down to the shades without obtaining atonement from the gods. At the command of the higher gods, sometimes of Nemesis, they appeared on earth pursuing criminals. Nothing escaped their sharp eyes as they followed the evil-doer with speed and fury, permitting him no rest.

Eris was the Greek goddess of strife, deceit, discord and disputation. The provoker of rivalry, contention, murder and wars.

Eros was the Greek god of love. He was the son of Aphrodite.

In Greek mythology, Eteocles was a son of the incestuous union of Oedipus and Jocasta and brother of Polynices. He denied his brother a share in the kingship of Thebes, thus provoking the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, in which he and his brother died by each other's hands.

see "Erinys"

Europa was the daughter of Agenor. She was carried off by Zeus who had transformed himself into a great white bull.

Eurus was the east wind god.

Euryale was one of the gorgons.

In Greek mythology, Eurydice was the wife of Orpheus. She was a dryad, or forest nymph, and died from a snake bite. Orpheus attempted unsuccessfully to fetch her back from the realm of the dead.

Euterpe was the muse of music.

Fama was an alternative name for the Roman goddess Pheme. In this form she was the mighty goddess of the word of mouth and human gossip. She Who initiates and furthers communication.

In Greek and Roman mythology, the Fates was goddesses who decreed what would happen to both men and gods.

In Roman mythology, Fauna was the mother goddess of earth, rural life, fields, cattle and wild creatures. She was a protectress of women.

Faunus was a Roman god similar to Pan.

In Roman mythology, Februata was the oracular goddess of love's passion. She who calls forth animals from their winter hibernation.

In Roman mythology, Felicitas was the goddess of joyous events, laughter, happiness and contentment. She who suckles the young.

Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers, youth, and spring.

In Roman mythology, Fornax was the goddess of the mysteries of bread-baking and the embryo's development.

Fortuna was the Roman goddess of luck.

see "Erinys"

Gaea was a Greek goddess of the earth.

In Greek mythology, Galatea was the daughter of Nereus and Doris. She rejected the advances of the Cyclops Polyphemus and instead gave herself to the Sicilian shepherd Acis. Polyphemus crushed Acis beneath a rock.

Ganymeda is an alternative name for Hebe.

Ganymedes was a son of the Trojan king Tros. He was carried off by Zeus and became the cup-bearer of the gods.

Genii is an alternative name for the daemons.

Golden fleece
The golden fleece was the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus had escaped and was given to Aetes the king of Colchis. It hung from an oak tree in the grove of Ares where a dragon guarded it.

Gordian Knot
In Greek mythology, the Gordian Knot was tied by King Gordius, and could only be unraveled by a future conqueror of Asia. Alexander the Great cut it with his sword in 334 BC.

In Greek mythology, the Gorgons; Stheino, Buryale, and Medusa, were daughters of Phorcys and Ceto. Two of them were believed to be immortal, while the third. Medusa, the youngest and most beautiful of them, was mortal. She loved Poseidon, and having met him once in the temple of Athene, to the desecration of that building, was punished by having her beautiful hair turned into snakes, thus making her appearance more ghastly than that of her sisters. Her face was terrible to behold, turning the spectator into stone. At last Perseus, finding her asleep, cut off her head with his curved sword, and presented it to Athene, who had assisted him in the enterprise, to be worn on her aegis or shield as a terror to her enemies. The ancient poets describe the Gorgons generally as horrid, aged women, and frequently place them by the side of the Furies. In early times there was only one Gorgon - Medusa - instead of the three of later times. The winged horse, Pegasus, was the offspring of her and Poseidon. In art Perseus is represented standing with sword in one hand and the head of Medusa in the other, turning his face away to avoid seeing it. The subject of Perseus cutting off the head of Medusa occurs in one of the earliest examples of Greek sculpture - one of the metopes of the oldest temple at Selinus, in Sicily; and from the conventional manner in which her face is represented, compared with the other parts of the sculpture, it is agreed that the type must have been familiar for some time to Greek art. To possess a representation of a Gorgon's face waa to be provided with a charm against ills, and accordingly it was frequently employed as a personal ornament.

Graces is an alternative name for the Charites.

In Greek mythology, the Graeae were three daughters of Phorcys and Ceto: Deino, Pephredo, and Enyo; their names meaning respectively "alarm", "dread", and "horror". They were sisters and at the same time guardians of the Gorgons, they were conceived as misshapen hideous creatures, hoary and withered from their birth, with only one eye and one tooth for the common use of the three, and were supposed to inhabit a dark cavern near the entrance to Tartarus. The belief in their existence seems to have been originally suggested by the gray fog or mist which lies upon the sea and is a frequent source of danger to the mariner. It is said that Perseus obtained from them the necessary information as to the dwelling of the Gorgons by seizing; their solitary eye and tooth, and refusing to return them until they showed him the way.

The griffin was a mythical monster, the supposed guardian of hidden treasure, with the body, tail, and hind legs of a lion, and the head, forelegs, and wings of an eagle.

In Wishok mythology, Guatrigakwitl is the creator who made all things.

Hades was the Greek god of the underworld. He was a son of Cronus. For more information on Hades you can click the link.

In Greek mythology, Haemus was a son of Boreas and Oreithyia. He married Rhodope and by her had a son, Hebrus. He and his wife presumed to assume the names of Zeus and Hera and were turned into mountains for their insolence.

Harmonia was the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. She married Cadmus. At the wedding she was given a necklace made by Hephaestus which conferred irresistible beauty upon the wearer. For more information on Harmonia you can click the link.

In Greek and Roman mythology the Harpies were creatures employed by the higher gods to carry out the punishment of crime. They were three in number : Aello, Ocypete, and Celaeno, or Podarge; and were said to be daughters of the giant Thaumas and the Oceanid nymphElectra. Their body was that of a bird, their head that of a woman; and it would seem that they were originally goddesses of the storm, which carries everything along with it. Their manner of punishing those whom they were sent to punish was to carry off all the food set before their victim, and devour it, or failing that, to render it uneatable. Among others who were punished in this way was Phineus, a king of Thrace, his crime having been cruelty toward his own son and contempt of the gods. For showing the Argonauts the way to Colchis he was, however, freed from their persecution by Calais and Zetes, the winged sons of Boreas, who, in gratitude, killed them.

Hebe was the goddess of youth. She was the daughter of Zeus and Hera.

In Greek mythology, Hebrus was a river god. He was the son of Haemus and Rhodope.

Hecate was a Greek goddess of the moon and spirits. Dogs were sacred to her.

In Greek mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince, son of King Priam and husband of Andromache, who, in the siege of Troy, was the foremost warrior on the Trojan side until he was killed by Achilles.

In Greek mythology, Helen was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and the most beautiful of women. She married Menelaus, King of Sparta, but during his absence, was abducted by Paris, Prince of Troy. This precipitated the Trojan War. Afterwards she returned to Sparta with her husband.

Helicon was a mountain in central Greece, on which was situated a spring and a sanctuary sacred to the Muses.

Helios was the Greek god of physical light.

In Greek mythology, Helle was the daughter of Athamas, King of Thessaly, and sister of Phryxes. With her brother she ran away from Ino, their cruel stepmother, on a ram with a Golden Fleece. Helle fell into the sea and drowned, thus giving her name to the Hellespont.

Hemera was the Greek goddess of day. She was born from Erebus and Nyx. She emerged from Tartarus as Nyx left it and returned to it as she was emerging from it.

Hephaestus was the Greek god of volcanic fire. The Romans called him Vulcan. He was the son of Zeus and Hera.

Hera was a Greek goddess. She was mother to Hephaestus. For more information on Hera you can click the link.

see "Hercules"

In Greek and Roman mythology, Hercules (Heracles) was considered as the perfect athlete. He was given twelve labors:
1) Kill the Nemean lion.
2) Destroy the Lernean hydra.
3) Capture alive the Erymanthian boar.
4) Capture alive the Ceryneian stag.
5) Kill the Stymphalian birds.
6) Clean the Augean stables.
7) Bring alive into Peloponnesus the Cretan bull.
8) Obtain the horses of Diomedes.
9) Obtain the girdle of Hippolyte.
10) Kill the monster and cattle of Geryon.
11) Obtain the apples of Hesperides.
12) Bring from the infernal regions Cerbeus the three headed dog of Hades.

In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. He was loved by a nymph who asked for eternal union with him. Her request was granted and they became one body with both male and female sex organs.

See detailed information on Hermes by clicking the link.

The Hesperides were daughters of Atlas and Hesperis.

See detailed information on Hestia by clicking the link.

In Greek mythology, Hippocoon was a King of Sparta. He was the son of Oebalus and Gorgophone. He refused to purify Hercules after he murdered Iphitus and further offended Hercules by killing Oeonus.

In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was the son of Theseus. When he rejected the love of his stepmother, Phaedra, she falsely accused him of making advances to her and turned Theseus against him. Killed by Poseidon at Theseus' request, he was in some accounts of the legend restored to life when his innocence was proven.

The horae were the Greek goddesses of the seasons. They were daughters of Zeus and Themis.

In Greek mythology, the Hydra was a huge monster with nine heads. If one were cut off, two would grow in its place. One of the 12 labours of Hercules was to kill it.

Hygea was the daughter of Aesculapius. She was the goddess of health.

Hymen was the Greek and Roman god of marriage.

Hymenaeus is an alternative name for Hymen.

In Greek mythology, Hynos or Somnus, was a son of Night, and the twin brother of Thanatos (death), with whom he lived in deep subterranean darkness at the entrance to Tartarus. His influence extended to gods as well as men, and by the latter he was viewed as a special benefactor, giving the weary refreshing rest, and sufferers alleviation of their pain. He was represented in different forms and attitudes, with different attributes - now nude, or lightly or heavily clad, now standing, or striding hastily, or reposing heavily; or as a powerful youth holding a poppy or a horn, from which sleep trickled down on those reposing; or as a child, and sometimes as a bearded, aged man. On his head were the wings of a hawk or a night bird, and beside him frequently a lizard. He was looked on as a favourite of the Muses, apparently because of the dreams he was supposed to communicate to men.

Iacchus is an alternative name for Dionysus.

Icarus was the son Daedalus. They went to Crete and were prevented from leaving by ship by king Minos. They escaped from the Minos labyrinth by means of wings made by his father Daedalus of feathers stitched to ribs of willow and the feathers held together by wax. In escaping Icarus showed off and flew too close to the sun, the wax holding the feathers to the wings melted and Icarus fell into the sea and was drowned.

see "Leucothea"

In Greek mythology, Io was the daughter of Inachus. She was beloved of Zeus. Zeus changed her into a white heifer to protect her from the jealousy of Hera.

In Greek mythology Ion was the son of Apollo and the Arthenian princess Creusa, whom Apollo raped on the Acropolis. Creusa abandoned Ion at birth, and Apollo took the child to Delphi, where he was brought up in ignorance of his true parentage. In the meantime, Creusa married King Xuthus. After several childless years, they went to Delphi to ask advice. Apollo told Xuthus that the first person he met on leaving the shrine would be his son - and that person was Ion. Furious that Xuthus was adopting someone she took to be a stranger, Creusa tried to kill Ion, but Apollo appeared and explained the situation. They all went back to Athens and in due course Ion sailed North and became the ancestor of the Ionian nation.

In Greek mythology, Iphigenia was a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. She was sacrificed by her father at Aulis to secure favorable winds for the Greek fleet in the expedition against Troy, on instructions from the prophet Calchas. According to some accounts, she was saved by the goddess Artemis, and made her priestess.

Irene was the Greek goddess of peace. She was sometimes regarded as one of the Horae, who presided over the seasons and the order of nature, and were the daughters of Zeus and Themis.

Iris was the goddess of the rainbow. She was the daughter of Thaumas and Electra. She was a sister of the harpies. She was a messenger who conveyed divine commands from Zeus and Hera to mankind.

In Greek mythology, Ismene was the youngest child of Oedipus and Jocasta, and the sister of Antigone, Eteocles and Polynices. When Antigone proposed to bury Polynices against King Creon of Thebes' orders, Ismene refused to help, but when Antigone was arrested and charged with the burial, she tried to share the blame, only to be rejected contemptuously by her sister.

In Greek mythology, Ixion was King of the Lapithae in Thessaly who was punished for his wickedness by being tied to a perpetually revolving wheel of fire.

Janus was a two faced Roman god of beginnings and ends.

Jason was the rightful king of Iolcus. He was smuggled out of Iolcus by Cheiron. When Jason returned to claim his birthright, Pelias sent him to fetch the golden fleece from Colchis.

Jocasta was the wife of Laius the king of Thebes. She unwittingly had incest with Oedipus, bringing a plague on Thebes. Her father sacrificed himself to rid Thebes of the plague. Jocasta hanged herself when she learnt the truth of her marriage to Oedipus.

Juno was the Roman name for the Greek goddess Hera.

Jupiter was the Roman name for the Greek god Zeus.

In Roman mythology, Juturna was a goddess of springs, rivers, aqueducts and fountains. The matron of architects and sculptors.

In Roman mythology, Juventas was a goddess of increase and blessings. She was representative of the eternal youth and solidarity of a species.

In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus and Taygete. He married Sparte. He was King of Lacedaemon and named the capital city Sparta after his wife.

The Laestrygones were a race of giant cannibals. They were ruled by Lamus. At Telepylos Odysseus lost all but one of his ships to them.

Laius was the king of Thebes and father of Oedipus.

Laocoon was a Trojan prophet, son of Antenor and a priest of Apollo and Poseidon. He warned the Trojans against the Wooden Horse.

Laodice was a daughter of Priam and the wife of Helicaon. When Troy fell she was swallowed by the earth.

The Lares were beings of the Roman religion protecting households and towns.

Larissa was a city in Thessaly where Achilles was reportedly born.

Leda was a daughter of Thestius. She was the wife of Tyndareus. She was seduced by Zeus and gave birth to two eggs. From one hatched her daughter Helen and son Polydeuces, and from the other hatched Castor.

Lemnos was a small island at the mouth of the Hellespont. Hephaestus landed on Lemnos when Zeus threw him out of heaven, and set up a forge on the island.

In Greek mythology, Lethe was a river of the underworld whose waters, when drunk, brought forgetfulness of the past.

In Greek mythology Leto was the mother of Apollo. See detailed information on Leto by clicking the link.

Leuce was a nymph loved by Hades. He turned her into a white poplar tree.

Leucothea was a friendly sea-goddess who assisted Odysseus in his dangerous voyage. She was the daughter of Cadmus and originally the wife of Athamas, in which capacity she bore the name of Ino. She had incurred the wrath of Hera because she had suckled the infant Bacchus, and was pursued by her raving husband and thrown into the sea where she was saved by a dolphin and subsequently took her place as a marine deity under the name of Leucothea.

Liber Pater
Liber Pater was an ancient Italian god of the vine.

Libera was the Roman name for the Greek goddess Persephone.

In Greek mythology, the Litai were sweet-natured goddesses, whose special duty was to recompense the persons whom Ate had reduced to distress and ruin. Their name signifies " prayers of the penitent," and the allegory in this case is not far to seek. Prayers atone and make amends for what a man does to the harm of others in thoughtlessness or from infatuation, without wicked thought or design. In the Homeric poems they are described as lame, wrinkled, and squinting - those deformities being caused by the trouble they had in making good the harm done by Ate. Penitent prayers were at best but sorry aid in making good the evil done from infatuation or carelessness. The Litai were supposed to be daughters of Zeus, and to place before him the prayers of those who invoked his assistance.

Luna was the Roman name of the Greek goddess Selene.

Lutinus was the Roman name for the Greek god Priapus.

In Greek mythology, Maia was the daughter of Atlas and the mother of Hermes.

The manes were the souls of departed people in the Greek and Roman religions.

Mars was the Roman name for the Greek god Ares.

In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who took up the pipes thrown down by the goddess Athena and challenged the god Apollo to a musical contest. On losing, he was flayed alive.

In Greek mythology, Medea was the sorceress daughter of the king of Colchis. When Jason reached Colchis, she fell in love with him, helped him acquire the Golden Fleece, and they fled together. When Jason later married Creusa, daughter of the king of Corinth, Medea killed his bride with the gift of a poisoned garment, and then killed her own two children by Jason.

Meditrina was a Roman goddess of health. She was a sister of Hygea.

Medusa was the youngest and most beautiful of the Gorgons. She loved Poseidon and desecrated the temple of Athene by meeting Poseidon there. For this she was punished by having her hair turned to snakes. The result was her appearance was so hideous to behold that it would turn the viewer to stone.

In Greek mythology, Megapenthes was a son of Proteus and King of Argos. He exchanged his dominion with that of Perseus and afterwards killed Perseus.

Melpomene was the muse of tragedy.

Memnon was the son of Eos and Tithonus. He was the king of Ethiopia who helped the Trojans and killed many Greeks. He was killed by Achilles in single combat whilst Zeus weighed their fates in the balance.

Menelaus was the husband of Helen of Troy.

Mercury was the Roman name for the Greek god Hermes.

In Greek mythology, Midas was a king of Phrygia who was granted the gift of converting all he touched to gold. He soon regretted his gift, as his food and drink were also turned to gold. For preferring the music of Pan to that of Apollo, he was given donkey's ears by the latter. See detailed information on King Midas by clicking the link.

Minerva was the Roman name of the Greek goddess Athene.

In Greek mythology, Minos was a king of Crete (son of Zeus and Europa). He was a philanderer, and this displeased his wife Pasiphae who blamed Aphrodite. He demanded a yearly tribute of young men and girls from Athens for the Minotaur. After his death, he became a judge in Hades.

In Greek mythology, the Minotaur was a monster, half man and half bull, offspring of Pasiphae, wife of King Minos of Crete, and a bull. It lived in the Labyrinth at Knossos, and its victims were seven girls and seven youths, sent in annual tribute by Athens, until Theseus killed it, with the aid of Ariadne, the daughter of Minos.

Mnemosyne was the mother of the muses. She signified the memory of great events.

Moerae was the Greek goddess of right and reason.

Momus was the ancient Greek god of jeering. He jeered bitterly at the actions of both men and gods, sparing no one with his insinuations except Aphrodite, in whom he could find nothing to blame, and vexed himself to death in consequence.

In Greek mythology, Morpheus was one form of the god of dreams (the other being Oneiros). His job was to fashion dreams, as the gods desired them to be sent to men. In this task he was assisted by Icelus, who fashioned those dreams that had all the appearance of reality, by Phobetor, the author of alarming dreams, and Phantasus, who tricked sleepers with innumerable and strange phenomena. But we find Morpheus also represented in the capacity of a sort of watchman and guardian of dreams, as Aeolus was of the winds.

Mors was the Roman version of the Greek god Thanatos.

see "muses"

The muses were nymphs of the springs.

Myrtilus was the son of Hermes.

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