Adiyaman lies in the southeast of Turkey in the central Firat (Euphrates) river region. According to archaeological research the history of the area goes back to the Paleolithic Age. During the Neolithic Age (8000-7000 BC) Gritille, Hayaz, Ancoz and Samsat were the main culture centers.
Adiyaman used to be known as "Hisn-i Mansur" until the republican era. It hosted many civilizations throughout its history including the Hittites, Mittanis, Urartus, Assyrians, Medians, Persians, Alexander the Great and the Kommagene. Adiyaman lived the periods of the Seljuk Turks, Crusades and Mamelukes in the 11th, and those of the Anatolian Seljuks, Ilkhanite and Mamelukes in the 12th century. It was annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1516 during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim. The area has ample pieces, structures and specimens coming from the Hellenistic era, Romans and the Byzantine together with those belonging to the Islamic - Turkish heritage. These assets obtained during the salvation work started in 1978 along with the Lower Euphrates Project are now placed in Adiyaman Museum. The museum exhibits pieces obtained from excavations carried out at various tumulus together with coins from the Roman and Seljuk times.
Historical sites within the central town include the Fortress, Carsi Mosque, Old Palace Mosque, Kap Mosque and the Grand (Ulu) Mosque from the 14th century.
The fortress of Adiyaman is placed on a man made hill at the center of the town, built by the Caliph Omayyad Commander Munsur Ibn-i Cavene to defend the city against the Byzantine attacks. Now remaining in a destroyed standing, the fortress has three main gates. Today this fortress is a park.
The ancient city of Perre, today called Pirin, is 5 kilometers from Adiyaman. The city ruins and 208 caves in the rocks, where there are some human relieves, are of historical importance.
At the Adiyaman Museum you will find on display archaeological and ethnographical finds from various historical periods. The museum is open everyday except on Mondays.
The territory of the province of Adiyaman, with a population over 600.000, extends from the slopes of the Southeastern Taurus Range to the Euphrates over an area of 7,614 square kilometers. Its administrative districts are the central Adiyaman, Kahta, Golbasi, Besni, Celikhan, Gerger, Samsat, Sincik and Tut. The Euphrates, the most fertile river of Turkey forms the southern and eastern borders of the province.
The province mainly subsists on crop farming and stock breeding. Land under cultivation constitutes one forth of the total territory of the province. Main crops are wheat, barley and corn. Vineyards which used to be an important source of income have been replaced by pistachio orchards.
The climate of Adiyaman is continental climate with hot, dry summers, and cold winters. However, in the summer the nights are cool. The average temperature varies from 30 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees during the summer months.
Adiyaman has been the host of many civilizations throughout its history. Being a melting pot socially and culturally, it has valuable features related to customs about different periods of life, hospitality, folk dancing, carpets and kilims. Adiyaman is famous for its folk songs, folk dancers and tombs. Different kinds of meatballs such as "cig kofte, icli kofte, mercimekli kofte" and hitap (stuffed hot pie) are special local foods in Adiyaman.
There are air, rail and overland routes to Adiyaman. Gölbaşı district is the primary junction, on the main highway to Malatya, Kahramanmaras and Gaziantep. Rail connections are also made in Golbasi, through which Malatya - Adana railroad passes.