All About Turkey

Grand National Assembly

(Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi - TBMM)

Turkish ParliamentLegislative power is vested in the unicameral Grand National Assembly, consisting of 550 deputies elected every 5 years. Under the 1961 constitution, the Grand National Assembly was a bicameral parliament with over 600 members. The 1982 system represents an effort to avoid the imbalances and the challenges to leadership that occurred under the larger, two-house legislature. And the number of deputies was dropped to 450 which later in 1998 became 550.

The legislative term has been lengthened by one year under the new Constitution in an effort to reduce the preoccupation with campaigning that had contributed to Turkey's political fragmentation in the past. For the same reason, by-elections to fill vacant seats are to be held only once between general elections unless the number of vacancies reaches 5 percent of the total assembly membership. General elections may be held earlier than scheduled if a majority of deputies so decides or if a prolonged parliamentary deadlock occurs.

The Grand National Assembly is to convene on the first day of September and may not recess for more than three months a year. During an adjournment, the president may summon the assembly for an extraordinary session, either on his own initiative or at the written request of one-fifth of the members. The assembly has the power to enact, amend, and repeal laws and can pass legislation over the veto of the president. It also supervises the Council of Ministers and authorizes it to issue governmental decrees. It debates and approves the budget and makes decisions regarding the printing of currency. In addition, the assembly approves the ratification of international treaties and has the power to authorize a declaration of war. Although the Constitution provides for legislative controls over the executive in the form of written questions, investigations, and interpellations, whereby the Council of Ministers can be voted out of office, there are also procedures under which the parliament may delegate its lawmaking powers to the Council of Ministers.

session at the ParliamentEvery Turkish citizen over the age of twenty-five is eligible to be a deputy, provided that he/she has completed primary education and has not been convicted of serious crime or been involved in "ideological and anarchistic activities". Male candidates are required to have performed the compulsory military service. Members of higher judicial and educational institutions as well as civil servants and members of the armed forces must resign from office before standing for election.

According to the Constitution, deputies represent the whole nation, not merely their own constituencies. A member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly wields more patronage and influence than do members of most other Western parliaments and is expected to intervene in the bureaucracy more actively and frequently.

Legislators are granted parliamentary immunities, such as freedom of speech and, with some qualifications, freedom from arrest. They can be deprived of their membership in the assembly by the decision of an absolute majority of its members. A deputy who resigns from his party may not be nominated as a candidate in the following elections by any party in existence at the time of his resignation.

Members of parliament have traditionally been a fairly young, educationally elite group; at least two-thirds of the deputies of every Grand National Assembly have been university educated. Whereas this has continued to be the case under the new constitutional system, there has been a shift in occupational representation away from a predominance of officials. A large portion of the deputies since 1983 have been lawyers, engineers, businessmen, and economists.

For the political parties in Turkey click here.

GOVERNMENTS

Governments in Turkish Grand National Assembly
Muvakkat Icra Encumeni (25 April 1920-3 May 1920)
I. Icra Vekilleri Heyeti (3 May 1920-24 January 1921)
II. Icra Vekilleri Heyeti (24 January 1921-19 May 1921)
III. Icra Vekilleri Heyeti (19 May 1921-9 July 1922)
IV. Icra Vekilleri Heyeti (12 July 1922-4 August 1923)
V. Icra Vekilleri Heyeti (14 August 1923-27 October 1923)

Governments in Republic of Turkey
I.Inonu Government (30 October 1923-6 March 1924)
II. Inonu Government (6 March 1924-22 November 1924)
Okyar Government (22 November 1924-3 March 1925)
III. Inonu Government (3 March 1925-1 November 1927)
IV. Inonu Government (1 November 1927-27 September 1930)
V. Inonu Government (27 September 1930-4 May 1931)
VI. Inonu Government (4 May 1931-1 March 1935)
VII. Inonu Government (1 March 1935-1 November 1937)
I. Bayar Government (1 November 1937-11 November 1938)
II. Bayar Government (11 November 1938-25 January 1939)
I. Saydam Government (25 January 1939-3 April 1939)
II. Saydam Government (3 April 1939-9 July 1942)
I. Saracoglu Government (9 July 1942-9 March 1943)
II. Saracoglu Government (9 March 1943-7 August 1946)
Peker Government (7 August 1946-10 September 1947)
I. Saka Government (10 September 1947-10 June 1948)
II. Saka Government (10 June 1948-16 January 1949)
Gunaltay Government (16 January 1949-22 May 1950)
II. Menderes Government (22 May 1950-9 March 1951)
II. Menderes Government (9 March 1951-17 May 1954)
III. Menderes Government (17 May 1954-9 December 1955)
IV. Menderes Government (9 December 1955-25 November 1957)
V. Menderes Government (25 November 1957-27 May 1960)
I. Gursel Government (30 May 1960-5 January 1961)
II. Gursel Government (5 January 1961-20 November 1961)
VIII. Inonu Government (20 November 1961-25 June 1962)
IX.Inonu Government (25 June 1962-25 December 1963)
X. Inonu Government (25 December 1963-20 February 1965)
Urguplu Government (20 February 1965-27 October 1965)
I. Demirel Government (27 October 1965-3 November 1969)
II. Demirel Government (3 November 1969-6 March 1970)
III. Demirel Government (6 March 1970-26 March 1971)
I. Erim Government (26 March 1971-11 December 1971)
II. Erim Government (11 December 1971-22 May 1972)
Melen Government (22 May 1972-15 April 1973)
Talu Government (15 April 1973-26 January 1974)
I. Ecevit Government (26 January 1974-17 November 1974)
Irmak Government (17 November 1974-31 March 1975)
IV. Demirel Government (31 March 1975-21 June 1977)
II. Ecevit Government (21 June 1977-21 July 1977)
V. Demirel Government (21 July 1977-5 January 1978)
III. Ecevit Government (5 January 1978-12 November 1979)
VI. Demirel Government (12 November 1979-12 September 1980)
Ulusu Government (20 September 1980-13 December 1983)
I. Ozal Government (13 December 1983-21 December 1987)
II. Ozal Government (21 December 1987-9 November 1989)
Akbulut Government (9 November 1989-23 June 1991)
Yilmaz Government (23 June 1991-20 November 1991)
VII. Demirel Government (20 November 1991-25 June 1993)
I. Ciller Government (25 June 1993-15 October 1995)
II. Ciller Government (15 October 1995-5 November 1995)
II. Ciller Government (5 November 1995-12 March 1996)
I. Yilmaz Government (12 March 1996-08 July 1996)
Erbakan Government (08 July 1996 - 30 June 1997)
II. Yilmaz Government (30 June 1997 - 11 January 1999)
IV. Ecevit Government (11 January 1999-28 May 1999)
V. Ecevit Government (28 May 1999-19 Nov 2002)
Gul Government (19 Nov 2002-12 Mar 2003)
I. Erdogan Government (14 Mar 2003 - 29 August 2007)
II. Erdogan Government (29 August 2007 - 6 July 2011)
III. Erdogan Government (6 July 2011 - 29 August 2014)
I. Davutoglu Government (29 August 2014 - 28 August 2015)
II. Davutoglu temporary Government (28 August 2015 - November 2015)
III. Davutoglu Government (November 2015 - ...)

 

After the elections of 12th of June 2011 the 60th Government has resigned according to the tradition and the 61st Government was established by Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdogan in July 2011. In the new cabinet eight State Ministers were removed, six new ministries were established, and some ministries have merged, forming the cabinet with 26 members including the prime minister. Each minister chose their deputies from non-parliamenters. Then, after the Presidential elections of August 2014, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was elected as the Turkish president so he left the Prime Minister seat to Ahmet Davutoglu as of 28th of August 2014 in order to form 62nd Govenment.

After the elections of 7th of June 2015, the 62nd Government has resigned according to the tradition. Since none of the political parties have won the majority of the seats during this last election, they tried to form a coalition but it didnít work out and there was a deadlock. In this case, according to the Law, the President has decided to renew the elections on November 1st, 2015. The 63rd transitional Government was formed by several political parties and indipendent deputies until the early elections following the rules of the Constitution.

The 63rd Government temporarily stayed in power until the new government was established by the winner party AKP on 24th of November. According to the official results of 1st of November 2015, the AKP won the majority of the Parliament with 49,50% of the total voters (317 deputies), the CHP got 25,32% (134 deputies), the HDP got 10,76% (59 deputies), and the MHP got 11,90% (40 deputies). Other minor political parties and Independents couldn't pass the 10% threshold rule thus remained outside of the Parliament for this term.

Members of the 64th Government

When Recep Tayyip Erdogan won the Presidential elections in August 2014 practically the 61st Government has come to an end. Before Erdogan left his Premiere seat for the Presidency he appointed Prof. Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu, Foreign Affairs minister, as the leader of AKP party, therefore Prof. Davutoglu formed the 62nd Government as of August 2014 and he became the new Prime Minister. Later on he also lead 63rd Temporary Government after June 2015 and the new 64th Government after November 2015. Below is the 64th (actual) Government list.

  • Prime Minister Prof. Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu
  • Deputy Prime Minister Prof. Dr. Numan Kurtulmus
  • Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Yalcin Akdogan
  • Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Mehmet Simsek
  • Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Yalcin Akdogan
  • Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Tugrul Turkes
  • Minister of Justice Mr. Bekir Bozdag
  • Minister of European Union Mr. Volkan Bozkir
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. Mevlut Cavusoglu
  • Minister of Interior Mr. Efkan Ala
  • Minister of Economy Mr. Mustafa Elitas
  • Minister of Finance Mr. Naci Agbal
  • Minister of Family and Social Politics Mrs. Sema Ramazanoglu (responsible for women)
  • Minister of Enviroment and City Planning Mrs. Fatma Guldemet Sari
  • Minister of Science, Industry and Technology Mr. Fikri Isik
  • Minister of Labor and Social Security Mr. Suleyman Soylu
  • Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Mr. Berat Albayrak
  • Minister of Customs and Commerce Mr. Bulent TŁfekci
  • Minister of Youth and Sports Mr. Akif Cagatay Kilic
  • Minister of Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Mr. Faruk Celik
  • Minister of Development Mr. Cevdet Yilmaz
  • Minister of Culture and Tourism Mr. Mahir Unal
  • Minister of National Education Prof. Dr. Nabi Avci
  • Minister of National Defense Mr. Ismet Yilmaz
  • Minister of Forestry and Water Mr. Veysel Eroglu
  • Minister of Health Mr. Mehmet Muezzinoglu
  • Minister of Transportation, Maritime and Communication Mr. Binali Yildirim

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