Turkish facts and statistics
Official flag of the Republic of Turkey. Red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening. It's called as "al sancak" in Turkish, meaning "red banner". For more info on the Turkish Flag, please Click Here.
Geography location: South-western Asia (that part west of the Bosphorus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria.
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E
total area: 780,580 sq km
land area: 770,760 sq km
water area: 9,820 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas, or larger than France and UK put together, or 2.5 times bigger than Italy.
total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km.
Coastline: 7,200 km
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish long form); Türkiye (Turkish short form); Republic of Turkey (formal English); Turkey (English short form); Turchia (Italian); Türkei (German); Turkiet (Swedish); Turkije (Dutch); Turkki (Finnish); Turquia (Portuguese); Turquia (Spanish); Turquie (French); Tyrkia (Norwegian); Tyrkiet (Danish); Tyrkland (Icelandic)
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior.
Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 meters
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 meters
largest lake: Lake Van 3,713 square km
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 66% (2006)
International agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Environmental Modification.
Current issues are: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosphorus ship traffic.
Strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas. Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country, in the city of Agri. The country is divided into 7 fictional geographic regions.
Officially 78,741,053 as of 1st January 2016 (67,803,927 in 2000 & 13,648,270 in 1927), average of 102 inhabitants live per square kilometer, 92.1% of the total population live in the cities and 7.9% in villages or small towns in the countryside.
Istanbul: 14,657,434 as of January 2016 (10,033,478 in 2000), 18.6 % of the total population, 2,821 people per square kilometer
Ankara: 5,270,575 as of January 2016 (4,007,860 in 2000), 6.7 % of the total population
Izmir: 4,168,415 as of January 2016 (3,387,908 in 2000), 5.3 % of the total population, 347 people per square kilometer
Bayburt has the lowest population in Turkey: 78,550 (as of January 2016)
total population: male 39,511,191 (50.2%); female 39,229,862 (49,8%) (as of January 2016)
0-14 years: 24% , total of 18,886,220 (male 9,691,297; female 9,187,285) (January 2016)
15-64 years: 67.8% , total of 53,359,594 (male 23,655,657; female 23,288,033) (January 2016)
65 years and over: 8,2% , total of 6,495,239 (male 2,150,103; female 2,850,072) (January 2015)
Median age: total 31 years (male: 30,4 years; female: 31,6 years). More than half of the population is under the median age (as of January 2016)
Population growth rate: 1.34% in 2015 (1.45% in 2010 & 2,11% in 1927)
Birth rate: 17.93 births/1,000 population (2011)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2006)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.008 male(s)/female (2012)
Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births in 2011 (17,5/1,000 in 2006)
Mother mortality rate at birth: 14 deaths/100,000 live births in 2011 (70/100,000 in 2003)
Life expectancy at birth: (2011)
total population: 75 years (73.2 in 2006)
male: 72 years (71.1 in 2006)
female: 76 years (75.3 in 2006)
Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman in 2012 (2.14 in 2008, 2.18 in 2006)
Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Religions: Muslim 99% (mostly Sunni), other 1% (Christian and Jews)
Languages: Turkish (official)
Literacy: age 6 and over can read and write (2012)
total population: 95,8%
( more on government )
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Türkiye
Data code: TU or TR
Type of government: republican parliamentary democracy
81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Constitution: 7 November 1982 , amended on 17 October 2001 by TBMM
derived from various European legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations. Member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)
18 years of age; universal.
Chief of state
President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN was elected by the people's vote in August 2014 for a five-year term (used to be seven years before 2007). Note that with the new articles of the Constitution, as of 2014 the President is and will be elected by the public vote, not by the Parliament as it used to be until 2007.
Head of government
National Security Council
Advisory body to the President and the cabinet
Legislative branch: unicameral
Grand National Assembly of Turkey: (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi), abbrev. TBMM (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the President; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay) and Council of State (Danistay), judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors. Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court.
Political pressure groups
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD ; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB.
International organization participation
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.
Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2010 accounted for 25,2% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. Its most important industry and largest exporter is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. The economic situation in recent years has been marked by rapid growth coupled with partial success in implementing structural reform measures. Inflation declined to 8,17% in 2014 (8.9% in 2010), down from 90% in 1997, but the public sector fiscal deficit probably remained near 10% of GDP due in large part to interest payments which accounted for 40% of central government spending in 2003. The government enacted a new tax law and speeded up privatization in 1998 but made no progress on badly needed social security reform. Ankara is trying to increase trade with other countries in the region yet most of Turkey's trade is still with OECD countries. After the implementation in January 1996 of a Customs Union with the EU, foreign direct investment in the country was recorded $15,9 billion in 2011. Results during recent years improved because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turkey will become a member of the EU. But further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Privatization sales in 2014 were about US$ 12,5 billion.
GDP (Total): US$ 772,3 billion in 2011 ($735,8 in 2010, $616,7 in 2009)
GDP: purchasing power parity US$ 960.5 billion (2010 est.) (was $551.6 billion in 2005 est.)
GDP growth rate: 4% in 2015 (8,9% in 2010, 10.7% in 2006)
GDP per capita: US$ 9.261 in 2015 (US$ 15.079 in 2010, US$ 13.710 in 2009, US$ 5.482 in 2006)
GDP composition by sector:
services: 63.5% (2006)
(consumer prices): 94% (1995), 90% (1997), 75% (1998), 68% (1999), 45% (2000), 90% (2001), 31% (2002), 11% (2004), 7.72% (2005), 5.9% (2007), 6.4% (2010), 10,45% (2011), 6,16% (2012)
Investment (gross fixed): 15.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 16,9% in 2010 (17,1% in 2009, 20,5% in 2007, 20% in 2005, 18% in 2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: 70.7% of GDP (2006)
lowest 20%: 5.6%
highest 20%: 47.6% (2009)
Distribution of family income: 44% (2002)
Labor force: 25.6 million in 2010 (24.7 million in 2009)
by occupation: agriculture 35.9%, services 22.8%, industry 41.2% (2004)
note: about 3 million Turks work abroad (2005), mostly in Germany
Unemployment rate: As of August 2015 it's 10,1% (plus underemployment of 2,9%) for 15 years and up (11.9% in 2010), 10,3% for 15-64 years, 18,3% for 15-24 years of age
Employment Rate: As of August 2015 it's 46,8% for 15 years and up (41,3% in 2010), 51,1% for 15-64 years
revenues: 499,48 billion TL, approximately US$ 227 billion (2015 est.)
expenditures: 350,95 billion TL, approximately US$ 195 billion (2012 est.)
foreign debt stock: US$ 290,3 billion in 2010 (US$ 268,7 billion in 2009)
public debt: 42,3% of GDP (2010 est.) (67.5% of GDP in 2005 est.)
Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper.
Industrial production growth rate: 12.5% (2014)
Main products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus, livestock
Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and the USA via air, land, and sea routes; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate.
Agricultural land: 385.650 sq km (2015) (391.219 sq km - 50.12% of the land area in 2008)
Forest area: 216.780 sq km (2015) (211.887 sq km - 27% of the land area in 2004)
capacity: 49,523,000 kW (2010)
production: 260 billion kWh (2015)
consumption: 264 billion kWh (2015)
export: 2.67 billion kWh (2010)
imports: 1,88 billion kWh (2010)
production: 18 million barrel (2014)
consumption: 41,5 million tons (2010 est.) (21,2 million tons in 1991)
imports: 16,84 million tons (2010), mostly from Iran and Russia (14,19m in 2009)
proved reserves: 262.2 million bbl (2012)
production: 502 million cubic meters (2014) (975 million m3 in 2008), which is only 1,7% of country's need
consumption: 39 billion cu m (2011) (26,9 billion cu m in 2005)
exports: 714 million m3 (2011)
imports: 43,8 billion cu m (2011), mostly from Russia and Iran, also from Algeria, Azerbaijan and Nigeria.
proved reserves in the World: 187,1 trillion cu m (2010)
Current account balance
US$ -99,86 billion in 2013 (US$ -71,66b in 2010, US$ -43.29b in 2005)
Exports: US$ 151,80 billion (2013) (US$ 113,88b in 2010)
Commodities: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment.
Partners: Germany 13.9%, UK 8.8%, US 7.7%, Italy 7.4%, France 5.8%, Spain 4.2% (2004)
Imports: US$ 251,66 billion (2013) (US$ 185,54b in 2010)
Commodities: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment.
Partners (exporting to): Germany 9%, Iraq 7,9%, UK 5,8%, Russia 4.6%, Italy 4.4%, France 4.2%, USA 3.7%, UAE 3,3%, Spain 2,9%, Iran 2,8%, China 2.4% (2013)
External debt: US$ 396,8 billion (2014) (US$ 247.2 billion in 2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: US$ 95,05 billion (as of 30 November 2011)
Foreign exchange reserves of the Central Bank: US$ 83,43 billion (as of 30 November 2011)
Gold reserves of the Central Bank: 116 tonnes (2010 est.)
recipient: ODA, $635.8 million (2002)
note: aid for Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991) $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund $2.5 billion; aid for Iraqi war (2003) approx. $8.5 billion; aid for Syrian refugees from EU (2015) 3 billion Euros.
Turkish Lira - TL (formerly New Turkish lira - YTL)
Exchange rates: USD 1 = 2,93 TL , Euro 1 = 3,25 TL (as of 26th of June 2016).
As of 01/01/2005, six zeroes are dropped from the old TL by the Law, which made 1.000.000 TL equal to 1 YTL. Both TL and YTL banknotes were in physical circulation for one year in 2005 and the old TL banknotes are withdrawn from circulation as of 1 January 2006. As of 1st of January 2009, "Yeni" (New) is dropped off from the name of the currency and YTL is now called TL (Turkish Lira) again.
Some previous rates: US$ 1 = 1,420,000 (Dec. 2004), 1,670,000 (Jan. 2003), 1,400,000 (Feb. 2002), 538,000 (Jan 2000), 420,000 (Jul 1999), 270,000 (July 1998), 175,000 (October 1997), 60,502.1 (January 1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991)
Fiscal year: calendar year
The State Railways is known as TCDD
total: 12,026 km (2015). Plans are 25.536 km until 2023 and 27.972 km until 2035
gauge: 8,717 km standard + 2,274 km electrified (2007)
New high-speed train tracks are built or under construction between major cities
total passenger capacity: 60 thousand (2009)
capacity of Freight Wagons: 691,634 tons (2007)
( Detailed Road Map )
total: 352,046 km (2012)
paved: 141,850 km (including 2,080 km of expressways) (2010)
unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)
Waterways: about 1,200 km (2003)
Motor vehicles: 17.191.105 (February 2013)
Pipelines: gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2003)
Ports: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit, Dilovasi - Yilport, Mersin, Samsun, Trabzon
total: 526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
ships by type: bulk carrier 108, cargo 228, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 25, liquefied gas 6, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 3, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 231 (2005 est.)
total: 68 (2012). 42 run by the State (DHMI) which plans to have 55 until 2023.
with paved runways over 3 047 m: 15
with paved runways 2 438 to 3 046 m: 32
with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 19
with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 046 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 20 (2005 est.)
Heliports: 54 registered (2012) (42 in 2006), out of which 21 are in Istanbul
Country code: 90
Telephones (land lines): 15,210,846 (2011) (19,125,163 in 2004)
Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems, area codes
Mobile GSM users: 72 million as of June 2015. Three networks: Turkcell, Vodafone (ex-Telsim), Turk Telekom (ex-Avea)
domestic: trunk microwave radio relay network; limited open-wire network
international: international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002). Turkey has four communication satellites; Turksat 1B (31.3 degrees East, not operative since 2006) , Turksat 1C (31.3 degrees East), Turksat 2A (42 degrees East), and Turksat 3A (42 degrees East).
Radio broadcast stations: 36 National, 102 Regional, 955 Local, a total of 1,093 (2005)
Radios: 19.4 million (1997 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 24 National, 17 Regional, 218 Local, a total of 259 (2005)
Internet country code: .tr
Internet hosts: 16.874.100 in 2009 (355,215 in 2004)
Internet users: approximately 45 million in 2015 (20 million in 2008, 8.5 million in 2005, 5.5 million in 2003)
Branches: Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces Command (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard Command, Gendarmerie (Jandarma)
active military personnel on duty: 628,141 (2015): 576,064 soldiers + 52,077 civilian personnel. There are 358 generals/admirals.
reserve personnel: 429,000 (2012)
males age 15-49: 20,754,882 (2012)
males fit for military service: 15 million (2012 est.)
males reach military age (20) annually: 1,370,407 (2012)
total males/females fit for military in case of a war: 41,247,000 (2012)
Defense expenditures: US$ 22,6 billion (2014), 2.5% of GDP (2011)
military vehicles: 4,460 tanks, 265 war ships, 16 submarines, 99 military airfields, 874 helicopters, 1,940 military planes, 7,133 armoured vehiles (2013 est.)
Sources: CIA - The World Fact book 2006, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), World Bank, State Airports Authority (DHMI), Turkish Railways (TCDD), Central Bank (MB), Turkish Army (TSK), and other State and Private institutions.