All About Turkey

Turkish facts and statistics

Below you can find some useful information on the Republic of Turkey. For Passport and Visa information please Click Here.

Flag

Turkish flag Official flag of the Republic of Turkey. Red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening. For more info on the Turkish Flag, please Click Here.

Geographic location

Turkey's satellite picture Geography location: South-western Asia (that part west of the Bosphorus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria.

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Area

total area: 780,580 sq km
land area: 770,760 sq km
water area: 9,820 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas, or larger than France and UK put together, or 2.5 times bigger than Italy.

Turkey in EuropeLand boundaries

total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km.
Coastline: 7,200 km

Names

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish long form); Türkiye (Turkish short form); Republic of Turkey (formal English); Turkey (English short form); Turchia (Italian); Türkei (German); Turkiet (Swedish); Turkije (Dutch); Turkki (Finnish); Turquia (Portuguese); Turquia (Spanish); Turquie (French); Tyrkia (Norwegian); Tyrkiet (Danish); Tyrkland (Icelandic)

Maritime claims

Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea.

Climate

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior.

Terrain

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 meters
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 meters
largest lake: Lake Van 3,713 square km

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.

Land use

arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 66% (2006)

Environment

International agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Environmental Modification.
Current issues are: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosphorus ship traffic.

Geographic note

Strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas. Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country, in the city of Agri. The country is divided into 7 fictional geographic regions.

Population

Officially 76,667,864 as of 1st January 2014 (67,803,927 in 2000 & 13,648,270 in 1927), average of 100 inhabitants live per square kilometer, 91.3% of the total population live in the cities and 8.7% in villages or small towns in the countryside.
Istanbul: 14,160,467 as of January 2014 (10,033,478 in 2000), 18.5 % of the total population, 2,725 people per square kilometer
Ankara: 5,045,083 as of January 2014 (4,007,860 in 2000), 6.6 % of the total population
Izmir:  4,061,074 as of January 2014 (3,387,908 in 2000), 5.3 % of the total population, 338 people per square kilometer
Bayburt has the lowest population in Turkey: 75.620 (as of January 2014)

Age structure

total population: male 38,473,360 (50.2%); female 38,194,504 (49,8%) (as of January 2014)
0-14 years: 24,6% , total of 18,849,814 (male 9,691,297; female 9,187,285) (January 2014)
15-64 years: 67.7% , total of 51,926,356 (male 23,655,657; female 23,288,033) (January 2014)
65 years and over: 7.7% , total of 5,891,694 (male 2,150,103; female 2,850,072) (January 2014)
Median age: total 30.4 years (male: 29,8 years; female: 31 years). More than half of the population is under the median age (as of January 2014)
Population growth rate: 1.37% in 2013 (1.45% in 2010 & 2,11% in 1927)
Birth rate: 17.93 births/1,000 population (2011)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2006)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.008 male(s)/female (2012)
Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births in 2011 (17,5/1,000 in 2006)
Mother mortality rate at birth: 14 deaths/100,000 live births in 2011 (70/100,000 in 2003)
Life expectancy at birth: (2011)
total population: 75 years (73.2 in 2006)
male: 72 years (71.1 in 2006)
female: 76 years (75.3 in 2006)
Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman in 2012 (2.14 in 2008, 2.18 in 2006)

Nationality

noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Religions: Muslim 99% (mostly Sunni), other 1% (Christian and Jews)
Languages: Turkish (official)
Literacy: age 6 and over can read and write (2012)
total population: 95,8%
male: 98,6%
female: 93%

Government

( more on government )
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Türkiye
Data code: TU or TR
Type of government: republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions

81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Constitution: 7 November 1982 , amended on 17 October 2001 by TBMM

Legal system

derived from various European legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations. Member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal.

Executive branch

Chief of state

President Abdullah GUL (ex-presidents were Ahmet Necdet SEZER, Suleyman DEMIREL) was elected in August 2007 for a five-year term (used to be seven years before 2007) by the National Assembly. (note: with the new articles of the Constitution, next President will be elected by the public vote.)

Head of government

Head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (ex-premieres were Abdullah GUL and Bulent ECEVIT) re-elected by universal suffrage and appointed by the President in June 2011 for the 3rd time after his victories in March 2003 and July 2007.

National Security Council

Advisory body to the President and the cabinet

Cabinet

Council of Ministers appointed by the President on nomination of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral

Grand National Assembly of Turkey: (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi), abbrev. TBMM (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the President; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay) and Council of State (Danistay), judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors. Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court.

Political pressure groups

Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD ; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB.

International organization participation

AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.

Economic overview

Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2010 accounted for 25,2% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. Its most important industry and largest exporter is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. The economic situation in recent years has been marked by rapid growth coupled with partial success in implementing structural reform measures. Inflation declined to 10,45% in 2011 (8.9% in 2010), down from 90% in 1997, but the public sector fiscal deficit probably remained near 10% of GDP due in large part to interest payments which accounted for 40% of central government spending in 2003. The government enacted a new tax law and speeded up privatization in 1998 but made no progress on badly needed social security reform. Ankara is trying to increase trade with other countries in the region yet most of Turkey's trade is still with OECD countries. After the implementation in January 1996 of a Customs Union with the EU, foreign direct investment in the country was recorded $15,9 billion in 2011. Results during recent years improved because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turkey will become a member of the EU. But further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Privatization sales in 2010 were about US$ 8,9 billion.

GDP

GDP (Total): US$ 772,3 billion in 2011 ($735,8 in 2010, $616,7 in 2009)
GDP: purchasing power parity US$ 960.5 billion (2010 est.) (was $551.6 billion in 2005 est.)
GDP growth rate: 8,5% in 2011 (8,9% in 2010, 10.7% in 2006)
GDP per capita: US$ 10.444 in 2011 (US$ 15.079 in 2010, US$ 13.710 in 2009, US$ 5.482 in 2006)
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 26.8%
manufacturing: 22.2%
services: 63.5% (2006)

(consumer prices): 94% (1995), 90% (1997), 75% (1998), 68% (1999), 45% (2000), 90% (2001), 31% (2002), 11% (2004), 7.72% (2005), 5.9% (2007), 6.4% (2010), 10,45% (2011), 6,16% (2012)
Investment (gross fixed): 15.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 16,9% in 2010 (17,1% in 2009, 20,5% in 2007, 20% in 2005, 18% in 2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: 70.7% of GDP (2006)
lowest 20%: 5.6%
highest 20%: 47.6% (2009)
Distribution of family income: 44% (2002)
Labor force: 25.6 million in 2010 (24.7 million in 2009)
by occupation: agriculture 35.9%, services 22.8%, industry 41.2% (2004)
note: about 3 million Turks work abroad (2005), mostly in Germany

Unemployment rate: 9,1% (plus underemployment of 2,9%) in 2012 (11.9% in 2010)
Employment Rate: 46% (2012)

Budget

revenues: 329,80 billion TL, approximately US$ 183 billion (2012 est.)
expenditures: 350,95 billion TL, approximately US$ 195 billion (2012 est.)
foreign debt stock: US$ 290,3 billion in 2010 (US$ 268,7 billion in 2009)
public debt: 42,3% of GDP (2010 est.) (67.5% of GDP in 2005 est.)
Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper.
Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (2004 est.)

Agriculture

Main products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus, livestock
Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and the USA via air, land, and sea routes; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate.
Agricultural land: 390.590 sq km (2010) (391.219 sq km - 50.12% of the land area in 2008)
Forest area: 213.900 sq km (2010) (211.887 sq km - 27% of the land area in 2004)

Electricity

220 Volts
capacity: 49,523,000 kW (2010)
production: 210,2 billion kWh (2010)
consumption: 209,4 billion kWh (2010)
export: 2.67 billion kWh (2010)
imports: 1,88 billion kWh (2010)

Oil

production: 2,54 million tons (2010) (4,4 million tons in 1991)
consumption: 41,5 million tons (2010 est.) (21,2 million tons in 1991)
imports: 16,84 million tons (2010), mostly from Iran and Russia (14,19m in 2009)
proved reserves: 262.2 million bbl (2012)

Natural gas

production: 760 million cubic meters (2011) (975 million m3 in 2008), which is only 1,7% of country's need
consumption: 39 billion cu m (2011) (26,9 billion cu m in 2005)
exports: 714 million m3 (2011)
imports: 43,8 billion cu m (2011), mostly from Russia and Iran, also from Algeria, Azerbaijan and Nigeria.
proved reserves in the World: 187,1 trillion cu m (2010)

Current account balance

US$ -71,6 billion in 2010 (US$ -32.77 billion in 2007)
Exports: US$ 134,5 billion (2011) (US$ 113,9 billion in 2010)
Commodities: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment.
Partners: Germany 13.9%, UK 8.8%, US 7.7%, Italy 7.4%, France 5.8%, Spain 4.2% (2004)
Imports: US$ 185,9 billion (2010) (US$ 137 billion in 2006)
Commodities: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment.
Partners: Germany 12.9%, Russia 9.3%, Italy 7.1%, France 6.4%, US 4.8%, China 4.6%, UK 4.4% (2004)
External debt: US$ 298,8 billion (2011 est.) (US$ 247.2 billion in 2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: US$ 95,05 billion (as of 30 November 2011)
Foreign exchange reserves of the Central Bank: US$ 83,43 billion (as of 30 November 2011)
Gold reserves of the Central Bank: 116 tonnes (2010 est.)

Economic aid

recipient: ODA, $635.8 million (2002)
note: aid for Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991) $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund $2.5 billion; aid for Iraqi war (2003) approx. $8.5 billion.

Currency

Turkish Lira - TL (formerly New Turkish lira - YTL)

Exchange rates: USD 1 = 2.20 TL , Euro 1 = 3.00 TL (as of 17th of February 2014).
As of 01/01/2005, six zeroes are dropped from the old TL by the Law, which made 1.000.000 TL equal to 1 YTL. Both TL and YTL banknotes were in physical circulation for one year in 2005 and the old TL banknotes are withdrawn from circulation as of 1 January 2006. As of 1st of January 2009, "Yeni" (New) is dropped off from the name of the currency and YTL is now called TL (Turkish Lira) again.

Some previous rates: US$ 1 = 1,420,000 (Dec. 2004), 1,670,000 (Jan. 2003), 1,400,000 (Feb. 2002), 538,000 (Jan 2000), 420,000 (Jul 1999), 270,000 (July 1998), 175,000 (October 1997), 60,502.1 (January 1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Transportation

Railways

total: 12,026 km (2011). Plans are 25.536 km until 2023 and 27.972 km until 2035
gauge: 8,717 km standard + 2,274 km electrified (2007)
New high-speed train tracks are under construction between Istanbul-Ankara
total passenger capacity: 108,330 (2007)
capacity of Freight Wagons: 691,634 tons (2007)

Highways

( Detailed Road Map )
total: 352,046 km (2012)
paved: 141,850 km (including 2,080 km of expressways) (2010)
unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)
Waterways: about 1,200 km (2003)
Motor vehicles: 17.191.105 (February 2013)
Pipelines: gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2003)
Ports: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit, Mersin, Samsun, Trabzon

Merchant marine

total: 526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
ships by type: bulk carrier 108, cargo 228, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 25, liquefied gas 6, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 3, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 231 (2005 est.)

Airports

total: 68 (2012). 42 run by the State (DHMI) which plans to have 55 until 2023.
with paved runways over 3 047 m: 15
with paved runways 2 438 to 3 046 m: 32
with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 19
with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 046 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 20 (2005 est.)
Heliports: 54 registered (2012) (42 in 2006), out of which 21 are in Istanbul

Communications

Country code: 90
Telephones (land lines): 15,210,846 (2011) (19,125,163 in 2004)
Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems, area codes
Mobile GSM Phones: 113 million as of February 2011 (63,9 million in June 2008). Three networks: Turkcell, Vodafone (ex-Telsim), Avea (Aria and Aycell have merged)
domestic: trunk microwave radio relay network; limited open-wire network
international: international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002). Turkey has four communication satellites; Turksat 1B (31.3 degrees East, not operative since 2006) , Turksat 1C (31.3 degrees East), Turksat 2A (42 degrees East), and Turksat 3A (42 degrees East).
Radio broadcast stations: 36 National, 102 Regional, 955 Local, a total of 1,093 (2005)
Radios: 19.4 million (1997 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 24 National, 17 Regional, 218 Local, a total of 259 (2005)
Internet country code: .tr
Internet hosts: 16.874.100 in 2009 (355,215 in 2004)
Internet users: approximately 35 million in 2013 (20 million in 2008, 8.5 million in 2005, 5.5 million in 2003)

Defense

Branches: Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces Command (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard Command, Gendarmerie (Jandarma)
Manpower availability:
active military personnel on duty: 612,900 (2012)
reserve personnel: 429,000 (2012)
males age 15-49: 20,754,882 (2012)
males fit for military service: 15 million (2012 est.)
males reach military age (20) annually: 1,370,407 (2012)
total males/females fit for military in case of a war: 41,247,000 (2012)
Defense expenditures: US$ 25 billion (2011), 2.5% of GDP (2011)
military vehicles: 4,460 tanks, 265 war ships, 16 submarines, 99 military airfields, 874 helicopters, 1,940 military planes, 7,133 armoured vehiles (2013 est.)

Sources: CIA - The World Fact book 2006, Turkish Statistical Institute, World Bank, DHMI, TCDD, MB.

All About Turkey © Burak Sansal 1996–2014, a certified professional tour guide in Turkey. Contact Burak at buraksan@superonline.com for all kinds of regular and/or private travel services throughout the country.