GAP (South Eastern Anatolian Project) is a multi-sectoral and integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development. Its basic aim is to eliminate regional development disparities by raising people's income level and living standards; and to contribute to such national development targets as social stability and economic growth by enhancing the productive and employment generating capacity of the rural sector. The project area covers 75,000 km2 (29,000 mi2) and 9 provinces in the Euphrates - Tigris basins and Upper Mesopotamia plains (Adiyaman, Batman, Diyarbakir, Gaziantep, Kilis, Mardin, Siirt, Sanliurfa and Sirnak). The GAP region has a share of about 10 % in both the total population and geographical area of Turkey. Around 20 % of total irrigable land in the country is in this region and the region represents 28 % of Turkey's total hydraulic potential.
The original initiative consisted of irrigation and hydroelectric energy production projects on the Euphrates (Firat) and the Tigris (Dicle) rivers. Along the 80s, the project was transformed into a multi-sectoral regional development program of a socio-economic character. This program covers such sectors as irrigation, hydraulic energy production, agriculture, urban and rural infrastructure, forestry, education and health. Its water resources program envisages the construction of 22 dams and 19 power plants and irrigation schemes on an area extending over 1.7 million hectares. The total cost of the project is 32 billion US$. The total installed capacity of its power plants is 7476 MW and the ultimate production target of GAP plants is 27 billion kWh, which is equivalent to approximately 1.3 billion USD in monetary terms.
The project is based upon the concept of sustainable development which aims at generating an environment in which future generations can fully develop themselves and reap the benefits of development. Equitable development, participation, protection of the environment, employment generation, spatial planning and infrastructure development are the basic strategies of GAP.
The center-piece of the Southeast Development Project (known in Turkish as GAP) is the 3,000-million-cubic-feet (84.4-million-cubic-meter) rock and earth-fill Ataturk Dam, the third largest of its type in the world. Eight hydroelectric plants are operational as of the end of 2005 and other dams are now in various stages of construction or planning in the southeast area. Such massive state investment will be followed by the private sector investments to tie this forgotten part of the country into the national economy at last. In 1997, irrigation of Harran fields started and farmers now are harvesting their crops nowadays, especially superb quality Turkish cotton, which is considered as the second best in the world (comes after the Egyptian cotton). When the projects are completed, 1.7 million hectares of land will be effectively irrigated.
The basic development scenario envisaged in the GAP Master Plan is to transform the region into an "agriculture based export center". And it will for sure change the Flora in the region in a positive direction. It will also improve the living standards of the people in the area.
How will GAP change the socio-economic structure of the region
Structural change in economy according to the master plan
Taking 2005 as the target year, the Master Plan projected GRP with its components of Agriculture, Industry, Services and the change with respect to 1985 was envisaged as follows:
|SECTORS||1985 (%)||2005 (%)|
|Gross Regional Product (GRP)||100||100|
While the share of the region in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was around 4 % in 1985, it rose to 5.5 % in 2001 accompanied by rate of per capita income rise from 47 % to 55 %.