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Assyrian civilization

Assyrian lands referred to the region on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia. The name derived from its original capital; ancient city of Ashur.

The Assyrians rose to power and prosperity around 12th century BC in Mesopotamia which today consists mainly of modern Iraq. Their Empire extended to some regions of modern Turkey and settled in different cities in Anatolia.

Assyrians played a major role in the foundation of the civilization of mankind. After the fall of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires respectively in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., the Assyrians were reduced to a small nation living at the mercy of their overlords in the vastly scattered lands in the Middle Eastern region and finally invaded by the Hurrians.

Assyrians were a Semitic people. They were mainly involved in farming, mining and forestry, with the largest standing army in the Middle East. They had two languages during their times: ancient Assyrian (known as Akkadian), and Modern Assyrian (or neo-syriac). They were advanced in science and mathematics and developed medical science.

The Assyrian Kings List

Early Period

A: "Kings who lived in tents"
Zariqum - beginning of the Assyrian independence
Puzur-Ashur I
Ilu-Shuma - raids into southern Mesopotamia
Erishum I

B: During Akkadian Domination
Sargon I   2334-2279    - united Mesopotamia  (Sumer & Akkad)
Rimush    2278-2270    - conquers Elam and Marhashi (Central Iran)
Manishtushu    2269-2255     - renovates Temple of Ishtar
Naram-Sin      2254-2218     - arrogates god-like status to himself
Shar-Kali-Shari     2217-2193     - Akkadian kingship begins to weaken
Igigi      2192
Elul-dan      2190
Dudu      2189-2169
Shu-Turul      2168-2154     - Akkadian empire collapses

C: Neo-Sumerian Domination
Ur-Nammu       2112-2095     - establishes the Third Dynasty of Ur
Shulgi               2094-2047      - extends father's empire to all of Assyria
Amar-Sin        2046-2038
Shu-Sin           2037-2029
Ibbi-Sin           2028-2004      - Amorites weaken Sumerian power

D: Assyrian kings during the Akkadian Domination
Ushpiya May have succeeded allowed king Azarah
Apiashal Ushpiya & Apiashal are also considered tent kings

E: "Kings who were ancestors"
Hale Chief of an Amorite tribe

F: Historic Period (written history)
Erishum II       1920-1900 
Shamshi-Adad I       1813-1781       - unites all independent Assyrian city-states
Ishme-Dagan I         1780-1741      - contemporary with Hammurabi of Babylon
5 Unknown Rulers
Several Minor Rulers
Erishum III
Shamshi-Adad II
Ishme-Dagan II
Shamshi-Adad III
Ashur-Nirari I
Puzur-Ashur III        1520
Enlil-Nasir I
Ashur-Nirari II
Ashur-Bel-Nisheshu          1417-1409
Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe II
Eriba-Adad I

Middle Period

Ashur-Uballit I         1363-1328      -  gains Assyrian Independence from Mittani
Enlil-Nirari             1327-1318
Arik-Den-Ili           1317-1306
Adad-Nirari I         1305-1274      - Mittani falls to Assyria
Shalmaneser I        1273-1244      - Urartu falls to Assyria
Tukulti-Ninurta I     1243-1207     - sacks Babylon, killed by his own son
Ashur-Nadin-Apli    1206-1203    - Assyrian power is weakened
Ashur-Nirari III       1202-1197
Enlil-Kudurri-Usur      1196-1191
Ninurta-Apal-Ekur      1191-1179
Ashur-Dan I              1178-1133    - Elam captures Babylonia
Ashur-Resha-Ishi I     1132-1115   - Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon captures Elam
Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur     1115-1114
Mutakkil-Nusku         1115-1114
Tiglath-Pileser I         1114-1076     - in defending Assyria, defeats Nebuchadnezzar
Asharid-Pal-Ekur II                     - limited to Nineveh, Irbil, & Ashur province
Ashur-Bel-Kala         1076-1057
4 Unknown Rulers
Shamshi-Adad IV      1053-1049
5 Unknown Rulers for 39 years
Ashur-Rabi II           1010-970     - Isreal & Judah under David & Solomon
Ashur-Resh-Ishi II      969-967
Tiglath-Pilasar II         966-935
Ashur-Dan II             934-912

Late Period

Adad-Nirari II         911-891     - captures Babylonia, Anatolia, & Syrian plain
Tukulti-Ninurta II      890-884     - peace with Babylon, no tributes required
Ashurnasirpal II      883-859      - Assyrian empire reaches Mediterranean Sea
Shalmaneser III      858-824     - defeats Arameans, captures Babylon & Persia
Shamshi-Adad V     823-811
Shamiram               811-806      - ruler of Assyria while her son was a minor
Adad-Nirari III        806-783     - Assyrian rule weakens
Shalmaneser IV       782-773
Ashur-Dan III        772-755     - rebellions against Assyria
Ashur-Nirari V       754-745
Tiglath-Pileser III     744-727     - re-gains Assyrian might greater than before
Shalmaneser V       726-722      - captures Samaria, deports Isrealites
Sargon II             721-705      - captures Egypt, Urartu, Babylon; dies in a battle
Sennacherib          704-681    - fought rebellions, destroyed Babylon
Esarhaddon          680-669     - rebuilt Babylon, defeats Scyth, Cimm, & Egypt
Ashurbanipal          668-627     - defeats Egypt, Lydia, & Elam
Ashur-Etel-Ilani        627-624      - Babylonians attack Assyria
Sin-Shar-Ishkun        623-612      - Medes sack Nineveh
Ashur-Uballit II        612 ?       - flees to Harran, supported by Egyptians

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